Now that there is a physiological basis for color categorization, we can ask ourselves what this is good for. We cannot eat it, but it might have considerable commercial value in United States Patent 8,456,694 issued two days ago on June 4, 2013. I am not a lawyer, but it appears that if you take two colors, determine their names, and then do anything with it, you might have to license this patent (but you can still keep your hippocampus ☺).
In large American corporations, when a new CEO start their new position, they often begin by putting their mark on the company's branding. They remodel their office and maybe even the HQ entrance, tweak the logo, design a new font, change the corporate palette, etc. These endeavors cost millions of dollars, but big corporations can afford it, especially when as a consequence other big corporations get motivated by the new branding to buy more widgets of the new CEO's company.
The only pity is that often this means that entire forests are wasted when the company has to reprint all its marketing collaterals. Around 2000, my employer at the time had a big warehouse in Campbell with product brochures, but fortunately our manager had been able to convince the company to deploy a document management system and print the marketing collaterals on demand, just when they were needed.
The hard problem came when a year later the CEO decided to change the color palette. Although all brochure chunks were stored digitally, when a brochure was produced by combining chunks with the old palette and chunks with the new palette, the resulting brochure looked inconsistent.
Colleagues Hui Chao and Xiaofan Lin quickly wrote code that could perform a wide range of graphical changes to the collaterals in the repository, and this writer wrote a few lines of code that would replace an old palette color with the perceptually nearest color in the new palette. Unfortunately, already the first test run demonstrated that this was a hack that did not work in practice. For example, many chicklets ended up having bright green text on orange background, something chromatically challenged people with color vision deficiencies could not read.
The solution that worked was to use a model to compute the names of the foreground and background colors, then change one of them to the nearest color in the new palette that was at least to color name categories away from the other color. This solution ended up being very good in practice and we wrote very efficient code that could process a large repository in a very short time.
I guess a sign of good engineering is to have the intuition for an unexpected solution before the scientists have worked out all the facts, …and we did not need nuclear bomb explosions.